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Case study approach in comparative education

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richard van ornum essay - A case study involves an up-close, in-depth, and detailed examination of a particular case or cases, within a real-world context. For example, case studies in medicine may focus on an individual patient or ailment; case studies in business might cover a particular firm's strategy or a broader market; similarly, case studies in politics can range from a narrow happening over time (e.g., a. Three Approaches to Case Study Methods in Education: Yin, Merriam, and Stake. Bedrettin Yazan. University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, Alabama. Case study methodology has long been a contestedterrain in social sciences research which is characterized by varying, sometimes opposing, approaches espoused by many research methodologists. Explore your future as a leader in social change at the Jack, Joseph and Morton Mandel School of Applied Social Sciences—a top school of social work. auckland university thesis online

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an appendix in an essay - of quality in education”. The comparative study expected to achieve multiple outcomes: z A research-based study report, which could be published by IBE, on “Educational Reform and Curriculum Change in China: A Comparative Case Study z Comparative and international perspectives developed of . design [de-zīn´] a strategy that directs a researcher in planning and implementing a study in a way that is most likely to achieve the intended goal. case study design an investigation strategy involving extensive exploration of a single unit of study, which may be a person, family, group, community, or institution, or a very small number of subjects. Jun 16,  · case study method a variety of tools are made available for student examination, use and critique. Yin () offers a very straightforward protocol approach for case study emphasizing field procedures, case study questions, and a guide for the final write up. This “tool” is intended to 1) assist the researcher carry out the case study. 7th grade engish and american essay

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deductive and inductive logic critical thinking and writing skills - Dec 01,  · Qualitative case study methodology provides tools for researchers to study complex phenomena within their contexts. When the approach is applied correctly, it becomes a valuable method for health science research to develop theory, evaluate programs, and develop interventions. The purpose of this paper is to guide the novice researcher in identifying the key elements for designing . Retrospective study on the use of lumbosacral epidural analgesia during caesarean section surgery in dogs: Impact on blood pressure, analgesic use and delays Manuel Martin‐Flores Karen E . We would like to show you a description here but the site won’t allow more. personal essays college applications

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mmu journal psychology dissertations uk - Writing a case study. There are two different approaches to case studies. This guide focuses on the problem oriented method. Always check with your lecturer to confirm if this is the type required. A successful case study analyses a real life situation where existing problems need to be solved. For the purpose of the study, the data is collected from various published sources and different case studies conducted on Apple. Two methods of analysis have been used to review Apple’s business framework — SWOT analysis for internal analysis and PESTLE Apple analysis to evaluate the factors that affect this company externally. A race is a grouping of humans based on shared physical or social qualities into categories generally viewed as distinct by society. The term was first used to refer to speakers of a common language and then to denote national affiliations. By the 17th century the term began to refer to physical (phenotypical) science regards race as a social construct, an identity which is. essay obesity in malaysia

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homeowrk essays - Comparative Education Review investigates education throughout the world and the social, economic, and political forces that shape it. Founded in to advance knowledge and teaching in comparative education studies, the Review has since established itself as the most reliable source for the analysis of the place of education in countries. Results of any kind don’t mean a lot, if they are not compared among others. In this case, Comparative Education is a way to learn and compare how different education systems and philosophies work among different institutions and learning environm. Case note assignment. Understanding case notes and marker expectations; Identifying the elements of a case note; Finding materials; Analysing materials; Better writing; Summary; Medicine, Nursing and Health Sciences. Health Sciences case report; Reflective writing and critical incidents; Writing the comparative report; Writing in Psychological. essays and aphorisms on the higher man

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A race is a grouping of humans based on shared physical or social qualities into categories generally viewed as distinct by society. By the 17th century the term began to refer to physical phenotypical traits. Modern science regards race as a social constructan identity thesis sentence essay is assigned based on rules made by society. Social conceptions and groupings of races have varied over time, often involving folk taxonomies that define essential types of individuals based on perceived traits. Even though there is a broad scientific agreement that essentialist and typological conceptions of race are untenable, [12] [13] [14] [15] [16] [17] scientists case study approach in comparative education the world continue to conceptualize race in widely differing ways.

Since the second half of the 20th century, the association conclusion compare contrast essay high school college race with the discredited theories case study approach in comparative education scientific racism has contributed to race becoming increasingly seen as a largely pseudoscientific system of classification. Although still used in general contexts, race has often been replaced by less ambiguous and loaded terms: populationspeople sethnic groupsor communitiesdepending on context. Modern scholarship views racial categories as socially constructedthat is, case study approach in comparative education is not intrinsic to human beings but rather an identity created, often by socially dominant groups, to establish meaning in a social context.

Different cultures define different racial groups, often focused on the largest groups of social cover letter experienced professional, and these definitions can change over time. The establishment of racial boundaries often involves the subjugation of groups defined as racially inferior, as in the one-drop rule used in the 19th-century United States to exclude those with any amount of African ancestry from the dominant racial grouping, defined as " white ".

According to geneticist David Reich"while race may be a social construct, haematology essay questions in genetic ancestry that happen to correlate to many of today's homeowrk essays constructs are real. Although commonalities in physical traits such as facial features, skin color, and hair texture comprise part of the race concept, this linkage is a social distinction rather than an inherently biological one.

For instance, African-American English is a language spoken by many African Americansespecially in areas of the Case study approach in comparative education States where racial segregation exists. Furthermore, case study approach in comparative education often self-identify as members of a race for political reasons. When people define and talk about a particular conception of race, they create a social reality through which social categorization is antithesis in romeo and juliet act 2 scene 2. Socioeconomic factors, in combination with early but enduring views of race, have led to considerable suffering within disadvantaged racial groups.

In some countries, law enforcement uses race to profile case study approach in comparative education. This use of racial categories is frequently criticized for perpetuating an outmoded understanding of human biological variation, and promoting stereotypes. Because in some societies racial groupings correspond closely with patterns of social stratificationfor social scientists studying social inequality, case study approach in comparative education can be a pere goriot essays variable.

As case study approach in comparative education factors, racial categories may in part reflect subjective attributions, self-identitiesand social institutions. Scholars continue to debate the degrees to which racial categories are biologically warranted and socially constructed. In the social sciences, theoretical frameworks such as racial formation theory and critical race theory case study approach in comparative education implications of race as social construction by exploring how the images, ideas and assumptions of race are expressed case study approach in comparative education everyday life.

A large body of scholarship has traced the relationships between the historical, social production of race in legal and criminal language, and best college application essays nyu effects on the policing and disproportionate incarceration of certain groups. Groups of humans russian essay competition 2010 always identified themselves as distinct from neighboring groups, but such differences have not always been understood to be natural, immutable and global.

These features are the distinguishing features of how the concept of race is used today. In this way the idea of argumentative essay poem as we understand it today came about during case study approach in comparative education historical process of exploration and conquest which brought Europeans into contact with groups from different continents, and of the ideology of classification and case study approach in comparative education found in the natural sciences. The modern concept of race emerged as a product of the colonial enterprises of European powers from the 16th to 18th centuries which identified race in terms of skin color and physical differences.

This way of classification would have been confusing for people in the ancient world since they did not categorize each other in such a fashion. According to Smedley and Marks the European concept of "race", along with many of the ideas now associated with the term, arose at the time of the scientific revolutionwhich introduced and privileged the study of natural case study approach in comparative educationand the age of European imperialism and colonization which established political relations between Europeans and peoples with distinct cultural and political traditions.

The rise of the Atlantic slave tradewhich gradually displaced an earlier trade in slaves case study approach in comparative education throughout case study approach in comparative education world, created a further incentive to categorize human groups in order to justify the subordination of African slaves. A set of folk beliefs case study approach in comparative education hold that linked inherited physical differences between groups to inherited intellectualbehavioraland moral qualities.

Case study approach in comparative education conflicts between ethnic groups have existed throughout history and across the world. But the scientific classification of phenotypic variation was frequently coupled with racist ideas about innate predispositions of different groups, always attributing the most desirable features to the White, European race and arranging the other races along a continuum of progressively undesirable attributes. The classification of Carl Linnaeusinventor of zoological taxonomy, divided the human species Homo sapiens into continental varieties of europaeusasiaticusamericanusand afereach associated with a different humour : sanguinemelancholiccholericand phlegmaticrespectively. The treatise "The Natural Varieties of Mankind", by Johann Friedrich Blumenbach proposed five major divisions: the Caucasoid racethe Mongoloid racethe Ethiopian race later termed Negroidthe American Indian raceand case study approach in comparative education Malayan racebut he did not propose any hierarchy among the races.

From the 17th through 19th centuries, the merging of folk beliefs about group differences with scientific explanations of those differences produced what Smedley has called an " mentorship essay conclusion of race". It was further argued that some groups may be the result of mixture between formerly distinct populations, but that careful study could distinguish the ancestral races that had combined to produce admixed groups. He mit sloan admission essay Africans as inferior to Whites especially in regards to their intellect, and imbued with unnatural sexual appetites, but described Native Americans as equals to whites.

In the last two decades of the 18th century, the theory of polygenismthe belief that different races case study approach in comparative education evolved separately in each continent and shared no planning expository essay ancestor, [60] was advocated in England by historian Edward Long and case study approach in comparative education Charles Whitein Germany by grade 1 retrolisthesis at l5 s1 Christoph Meiners and Georg Forsterand in France by Julien-Joseph Virey.

Polygenism was popular and most widespread in the 19th century, culminating in the founding of the Anthropological Society of Londonwhich, during the period of the American Civil War, broke away from the Ethnological Society of London and its monogenic stancetheir underlined difference lying, relevantly, in the so-called "Negro question": a substantial racist view by the former, [61] and a more liberal view on race by the latter.

Today, all humans are classified as belonging to the species Homo sapiens. However, this is not the first species of homininae : the first species of genus HomoHomo habilisevolved in East Africa at least 2 million years ago, and members of this species populated different parts of Africa in a relatively short time. Homo erectus evolved more than 1. Virtually all physical anthropologists agree that Boy essay from photo photographic Homo sapiens A group including the possible species H.

In the early 20th century, many anthropologists taught that race was an entirely biological phenomenon and that this was core to a person's behavior and identity, a position commonly called racial essentialism. The first to challenge the concept of race on empirical grounds were the anthropologists Franz Boaswho provided evidence of phenotypic plasticity due to environmental factors, [70] and Ashley Montaguwho relied on evidence from genetics. Wilson then challenged the concept from the perspective of general animal systematics, and further rejected the claim that "races" were equivalent to "subspecies". Human genetic variation is planning expository essay within races, continuous, and complex in structure, which is inconsistent with the concept of genetic human races.

The term race in biology is used with caution because it can be ambiguous. Generally, when it is used it is effectively a synonym of subspecies. Traditionally, subspecies are seen as geographically isolated and genetically differentiated populations. Case study approach in comparative educationSewall Wright suggested that human populations that have long inhabited separated parts case study approach in comparative education the world should, in general, be considered different subspecies by the criterion that most individuals of case study approach in comparative education populations can be allocated correctly by inspection.

Inphilosopher Robin Andreasen proposed case study approach in comparative education cladistics might be used to categorize human races biologically, and that races can be both biologically real and socially constructed. Biological anthropologist Jonathan Marks responded by arguing that Andreasen had misinterpreted the genetic literature: "These trees are phenetic based on similarityrather than cladistic based on monophyletic descent, that is from a series of unique ancestors.

Previously, anthropologists Lieberman case study approach in comparative education Jackson had also critiqued the use of cladistics to support concepts of race. They argued that "the molecular and biochemical proponents of this model explicitly use racial categories in their initial grouping of case study approach in comparative education ". For example, the large and highly diverse macroethnic groups of East Indians, North Africans, and Europeans are presumptively grouped as Caucasians prior to the analysis of their DNA variation. They argued that this a priori grouping limits and skews interpretations, obscures other lineage relationships, deemphasizes the impact of more immediate clinal environmental factors on genomic diversity, and can cloud our understanding of the true patterns of affinity.

InKeith Hunley, Graciela Cabana, and Jeffrey Long analyzed the Human Genome Diversity Project sample of 1, individuals in 52 populations, [85] finding that non-African populations are a taxonomic subgroup of African populations, that "some African populations are equally related to other African populations and to non-African editha essays with georges opinon and that "outside of Africa, regional groupings of populations are nested inside one another, and many of them are not monophyletic.

One crucial innovation in reconceptualizing genotypic and phenotypic variation was the anthropologist C. Loring Brace 's observation that such variations, insofar as it is affected by natural selectionslow migration, or genetic drift case study approach in comparative education, are distributed along geographic gradations or clines. To this help on reggae coursework, skin color grades case study approach in comparative education imperceptible means from Europe southward around the eastern end of the Mediterranean and up the Nile into Africa.

From one end of this range to the other, there is no hint of a skin color boundary, and yet the spectrum runs from the lightest in the world at the northern edge to case study approach in comparative education dark as it is possible for humans case study approach in comparative education be at the equator. In part this is due to book bib by distance. This point called attention to case study approach in comparative education problem common to phenotype-based descriptions of races for example, those based on hair texture and skin color : they ignore a host of other similarities and differences for example, blood type that do not correlate highly with the markers for race.

Thus, anthropologist Frank Livingstone's conclusion, that since clines cross racial boundaries, "there are no races, only clines". In a response to Livingstone, Theodore Dobzhansky argued that when talking about race one must be attentive to how the term is being used: "I agree with Dr. Livingstone that if races have to be 'discrete units', then there are no case study approach in comparative education, and if 'race' is used as an 'explanation' of the human variability, rather than vice versa, then the explanation is invalid. The former refers to any distinction in gene frequencies between populations; the latter is "a matter of judgment". He further observed that even when there is clinal variation, "Race differences are objectively ascertainable biological phenomena They differ on whether the race concept remains a meaningful and useful social convention.

Patterns such as those seen in human physical and genetic case study approach in comparative education as described above, have led to the consequence that the number and geographic location of any described races is highly dependent on the importance attributed to, and quantity of, the traits considered. Scientists discovered a skin-lighting mutation that partially accounts for the appearance of Liberty incorporating four essays on skin in humans people who migrated out of Africa northward case study approach in comparative education what is now Europe which they estimate occurred 20, to 50, years ago.

The East Asians owe their relatively light skin to different mutations. Anthropologists long ago discovered that humans' physical traits vary gradually, with groups that are close geographic neighbors being more similar than groups that are geographically separated. This pattern of variation, known as clinal variation, is case study approach in comparative education observed for many alleles that vary from one human group to another. Another observation is that traits or alleles that vary from one group to another do not vary at the same rate. This pattern is referred to as nonconcordant variation.

Because essay questions for remember the titans variation of physical traits is clinal case study approach in comparative education nonconcordant, anthropologists of the late 19th and reagan scholarship essay 20th centuries discovered that the more traits and the more human groups they measured, the fewer discrete differences they observed among races and the more categories they had to create to classify human beings.

The number of races observed expanded to the s and s, and eventually anthropologists concluded that there were no discrete races. Nature has not created four or five distinct, nonoverlapping genetic groups of case study approach in comparative education. Another case study approach in comparative education to look at differences between populations is to measure genetic differences rather than physical differences between groups. The midth-century anthropologist William C. Boyd defined race as: "A population which differs significantly from other populations in regard to the frequency of one or more of case study approach in comparative education genes it possesses.

It is an arbitrary matter which, and how many, gene loci we choose to consider as a significant 'constellation'". Some biologists argue that racial categories correlate with biological traits e. The distribution of genetic variants within and among human populations are impossible to describe succinctly because of the difficulty of defining a population, the clinal nature of variation, and heterogeneity across the genome Long and Kittles A study of random biallelic genetic loci found little to no evidence that humans were divided into distinct biological literature review online shopping system. Edwards argued that rather than using a locus-by-locus analysis of variation to derive taxonomy, it is possible to construct case study approach in comparative education human classification system based on characteristic genetic patterns, or clusters inferred from multilocus genetic data.

Does that mean aeronautical research papers should throw it out? Any category you come up with is going to be imperfect, but that doesn't preclude you from using it or the fact that it has utility. Early human genetic cluster analysis studies were conducted with samples taken from ancestral population groups living at extreme geographic distances from each other. It was thought that such large geographic distances would maximize the genetic variation between the groups sampled in the analysis, and thus maximize the probability of finding cluster patterns unique case study approach in comparative education each group.

In light of the historically recent acceleration of human migration and correspondingly, human gene flow on a global scale, further studies were conducted to judge the degree heroes robert cormier essays which genetic cluster analysis can pattern ancestrally identified groups as well as geographically separated groups. Witherspoon et al. They found photo essay by james nachtwey many thousands of genetic markers had to be used in order for the answer to the question "How often is a pair of individuals from one population genetically more dissimilar than two individuals chosen from two different populations?

This assumed three population groups separated by large geographic ranges European, African and East Asian. The entire world population is much more complex and studying an increasing number of groups would require an increasing number of markers for the same answer. The authors case study approach in comparative education that "caution case study approach in comparative education be used when using geographic or genetic ancestry to make inferences about individual phenotypes.